how was wheat domesticated in the agricultural revolution
For example, the wild progenitors of wheat and barley exist in a narrow range, extending from approximately 30°N to 40°N. Domestication of these crops from their wild ancestors required the evolution of traits useful to humans … tauschii (Salamini et al. Although Ae. 2007). Therefore, the use of both short and long reads may complement each other. (2014), have shown that accessions maintained in ex situ Genebanks have higher rates of introgressions from domesticated varieties than in freshly collected samples, due to the use of handling protocols for inbreeding species. 2000; Kanazin et al. Comparative mapping later demonstrated that sog and Tg are not orthologs, since they occupy distinct positions on a syntenic map (Sood et al. One of the principal arguments in favor of a proposed second domestication center in Tibet is the existence of hulless, six‐rowed barley with a brittle rachis (Dai et al. Therefore, assuming no substantial genetic changes in wild populations, it is possible to trace domesticated genotypes to a potential region of origin. Unlike the above ground part of plants, the root system is not well studied; nevertheless, the roots are equally important to the plant for anchoring the plant and nutrient uptake (Osmont et al. vulgare) is remarkably morphologically similar to its wild progenitor, Hordeum vulgare ssp. Without hulls, they germinate rapidly. Today, einkorn is considered a relic crop since it has largely been supplanted by agronomically superior wheats (Salamini et al. The effect of domestication on awns in wheat does not match the clear differences between wild and domestic gene pools for other traits. (2016), are needed to better understand the genetic composition of ancient wheat and barley populations, although these studies are necessarily limited by a fragmented archeological record. The genomes of wheat and barley had long been considered to be intractable to large‐scale genome analyses; however, technological advancements have made sequencing these large and complex genomes possible. 2009). For a long time, the genomes of the Triticeae were considered to not be amenable to sequence assembly because of their large genome size and highly repetitive nature. The majority of wild barleys have a vernalization requirement. The fact that an individual research team has been able to take on a genome such as wheat is an indication that we have arrived at a time when the availability of reference genomes will no longer be the rate‐limiting step. Wheat and barley are two of the founder crops of the agricultural revolution that took place 10,000 years ago in the Fertile Crescent and both crops remain among the world's most important crops. In barley, the awns contribute to photosynthesis (Kjack and Witters 1974), perhaps explaining why the presence of awns was preserved under domestication, although awns of domesticated barley are shorter than those of wild barley. Since spelt is not free‐threshing, it can be considered to be more primitive than free‐threshing bread wheat, at least from an anthropocentric view. None of the Br genes have been cloned in wheat, although Avni et al. A number of phenotypic differences exist between domesticated and wild species that are mirrored by differences at the genetic level. 2002), but this study could not localize the sog gene to a specific region of chromosome 2A. According to French botanist Agathe Roucou and colleagues, the domestication process also caused multiple changes in the plant that were generated indirectly. Further, many of the papers published in support of a second domestication center in Tibet overstate their claims, so the evidence in favor of a center of domestication in Tibet are weaker than presented. The q alleles at the homoeologous positions on 5B and 5D appear to have undergone pseudogenization and sub‐functionalization, respectively (Zhang et al. Vrn2 is on the long arm of the group 5 chromosomes and is a dominant repressor of flowering under long days though repression of Vrn3. The British Agricultural Revolution, or Second Agricultural Revolution, was the unprecedented increase in agricultural production in Britain due to increases in labour and land productivity between the mid-17th and late 19th centuries.Agricultural output grew faster than the population over the century to 1770, and thereafter productivity remained among the highest in the world. Domestication of these crops from their wild ancestors required the evolution of traits useful to humans, rather than survival in their natural environment. Wheat and barley are two of the founder crops of the agricultural revolution that took place 10,000 years ago in the Fertile Crescent and both crops remain among the world's most important crops. The Green Revolution The Green Revolution refers to the transformation of agriculture that began in 1945, largely due to the life work of Norman Borlaug. Crop domestication, green revolution, and breeding Steve Strauss. 2012). The Fertile Crescent, Egypt, and India were sites of the earliest planned sowing and harvesting of plants.. Agriculture developed independently in a number of places at different times. Domestication. (2016), necessitate an initial reference sequence. In this context, quality genes refer to genes that control end‐use traits like milling, baking and malting quality. One possible way that might have occurred is that farmers harvested wheat after it was ripe, but before it self-dispersed, thereby collecting only the wheat that was still attached to the plant. 2015). The two main ways to combat poor soil quality, or lack of nutrients in the soil, are to leave fields fallow for a period of time in a milpa cycle, and to use slash-and-burn techniques. The result of the initial hybridization event was tetraploid (emmer) wheat T. turgidum ssp. 2012). Edited by: Thorsten Schnurbusch, Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Germany. 2011). 2003). spelta) was widely cultivated in Europe until the 20th century when it was largely replaced by bread wheat due to the agronomic superiority of the latter; however, spelt is still grown to a limited extent in Central Europe, particularly on marginal land, and may provide a valuable resource for future bread wheat improvement (Longin and Würschum 2016; Müller et al. Intermedium). Molecular markers, such as restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and microsatellites/simple sequence repeat (SSR), provided extensive resources that could be used to construct genetic maps, or calculate genetic distances, for both wheat (Chao et al. Alternative hypotheses are not discussed by their work. However, the longer reads come with the cost of an increased error rate (Koren et al. Cereals were grown in Syria as long as 9,000 years ago, while figs were cultivated even earlier; prehistoric seedless fruits discovered in the Jordan Valley suggest fig trees were being planted some 11,300 years ago. 2007; Nice et al. Origins of agriculture - Origins of agriculture - Mesoamerica: An understanding of Mesoamerican agricultural origins is hampered by the fact that few archaeological sites pertinent to the question have been explored. Wheat demanded a lot of them. K. Kris Hirst is an archaeologist with 30 years of field experience. Other evidence demonstrates that bread was being produced 14,400 years ago, leading to the hypothesis of cultivation of cereals prior to domestication (Arranz‐Otaegui et al. 1997; Salamini et al. Disagreements persist and, due to the dearth of archaeobotanical data, and it is difficult to prove or disprove the protracted model. The Fertile Crescent is widely accepted to be the center of origin of our cereal crops (Zohary et al. But that naturally useful brittleness doesn't suit humans, who prefer to harvest wheat from the plant rather than off the surrounding earth. tauschii is part of the primary gene pool of wheat, a recent study shows how crop wild relatives in the secondary gene pool may be exploited to recover variation lost during domestication (Gorafi et al. 2015). 2008). tritici), such as race TTKSK (Scott et al. 2006; Pourkheirandish et al. Part of the reason that Ppd‐A1 is less well‐studied compared to its orthologs is the lack of genetic resources needed to study it. Previous work demonstrated that the q allele is still functional, albeit less efficient than the Q allele. The answer is wheat and barley. These claims are controversial and, as others have pointed out, the hypothesis of a protracted domestication is based on strong assumptions that are difficult to verify. Domestication of these crops from their wild ancestors required the evolution of traits useful to humans, rather than survival in their natural environment. Plant Economy and Territory Exploitation in the Alps During the Neolithic (5000–4200 cal Bc): First Results of Archaeobotanical Studies in the Valais (Switzerland). 2012). 2017). The Origin of Domesticated Wheat 2017a). In addition to nud, a gene for ease of threshability (thresh‐1) was identified on the long arm of chromosome 1H by means of introgression mapping (Schmalenbach et al. 2012). 2014) and the N genome of Ae. The “Agricultural Revolution” ... Fractionating Wheat.Domestication has two aspects: human knowledge and the biology of the plant or animal in question. 2008). In barley, there are two closely linked non‐brittle rachis genes, Btr1 and Btr2, which have been cloned in the homoeologous region on chromosome 3H, although they only appear to be related to each other functionally and not structurally (Pourkheirandish et al. The donor of the wheat B genome is not conclusively known. 2014; Huang et al. Specifically, cereals are inbreeding plants and the models chosen assume outcrossing (Heun et al. Additional reference genomes will also be useful to precisely detect domesticated introgressions into wild populations, to measure gene flow. It wasn’t easy. 2000). The wild‐type (q) allele confers the elongated or speltoid spike phenotype. domestication of animals and cultivation of new food crops. Wheat and barley are two of the founding crops that started the agricultural revolution about 10,000 years ago in the Fertile Crescent (Zohary et al. 2013). Using genebank material, Börner et al. The existence of two mutant alleles of the Btr genes supports this region, since one of them originated in the southern Levant, which encompasses the Jordan valley (Badr et al. Modern wheat is grown as far north as the Arctic Circle and as far south as 41°S in Chile (fao.org). In that study, synthetic hexaploid wheats were created by crossing diverse Ae. The wild progenitors of crops including wheat, barley and peas are traced to the Near East region. 2008). One of the greatest challenges in Mesoamerica for farmers is the lack of usable land, and the poor condition of the soil. In this scenario, early hexaploid would have been hulled due to the tenacious glumes (Tg‐D1/Tg‐D1) contributed by Ae. 2017). Knowledge of gluten gene sequences may also be helpful in efforts to make wheat that people who suffer from celiac disease can eat, through gene editing (Sánchez‐León et al. 2006). The egg donor in this initial hybridization event was the donor of the B genome and the pollen donor contributed the A genome; therefore, the genome formula for tetraploid wheats should be written as BBAA (Özkan et al. 1993) during an amphiploidization event which took place no more than 0.5 million years ago (Chalupska et al. Multiple different wheat and wheat relative genome sequences have been published, including the genomes of the wild progenitors of hexaploid bread wheat: T. urartu (Ling et al. 2013; Ling et al. 2002; Torada and Amano 2002). The presence of Ppd‐A1 was confirmed soon after through the identification of a mutation in the same regulatory region as that which rendered Ppd‐D1 non‐functional (Wilhelm et al. Emmer wheat . The limitations imposed by ascertainment bias may be overcome through re‐sequencing studies of both wheat and barley, especially when those studies include wild genotypes; however, re‐sequencing studies, such as those by Jordan et al. It is believed that this event occurred when cultivation of domesticated emmer wheat spread into the natural range of Ae. Just like Einkorn wheat, Emmer wheat exists in both wild and domesticated species. Homoeologs of TB1 variants affecting spike architecture also exist in the A (TB‐A1) and B (TB‐B1) genomes, but variants of TB‐B1 seem to have a larger impact on spike architecture than TB‐A1 (Dixon et al. Suddenly, within just a few short millennia, it was growing all over the world. The complex large genomes presented unique challenges to the generation of reference sequences of both wheat and barley. To aid in the reduction of the size of introgressed segments, genomic resources may be used to delimit the introgressions as demonstrated for H. bulbosum segments into H. vulgare (Wendler et al. sharonensis using SNPs identified by comparison with the 2014 wheat genome assembly (IWGSC 2014) and conducting genome‐wide association mapping (GWAS). Ten thousand years ago wheat was just a wild grass, one of many, confined to a small range in the Middle East. 2014). 1995). Wheat genotypes with higher than normal levels of TB1‐D1 expression have paired spikelets at each floret rather than a single spikelet due to extra branching. 2004; Azhaguvel and Komatsuda 2007). (. 2001), more detailed work is still lacking. These genes are tightly linked, so the observed differences have previously been explained by two independent origins in the northern and southern Levant (Komatsuda et al. However, dimerization has not been demonstrated in wheat plants. boeoticum (AbAb), a close relative of T. urartu. 2016). According to Yuval Noah Harari, human beings domesticated many a things including various eatables and animals but it was wheat that domesticated human […] 2007). Evolution and Adaptation of Wild Emmer Wheat Populations to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses. Archaeobotanical evidence is often in conflict with the rapid domestication scenario. tauschii. 2018). 2003; Simons et al. Emmer grows in diverse habitats from 100 m (330 ft) below sea level to 1700 m (5,500 ft) above, and can survive on between 200–1,300 mm (7.8–66 in) of annual precipitation. The authors seem to recognize this, moderating their claim to say that the Horn of Africa “is at least a center of diversification.”. In addition, Q affects glume keeledness, rachis toughness, spike length and culm height (Faris et al. Without the establishment of a diverse wild barley population or a permanent human presence, a secondary domestication on the Tibetan plateau is implausible. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Archaeological evidence shows us today that the oldest known crops to have been found in Europe were from wheat and barley, while the rest possible answers that you've stated have mostly appeared later on in history. 8,500 BC – Neolithic Revolution, the first agricultural revolution, begins in the ancient Near East 8,000 BC – was domesticated wheat at PPNA sites in the Levant. The distribution of wheat outside of its place of origin is part of the process known as "Neolithicization." For example, the IWGSC (2014) established that there is no dominance between the subgenomes of wheat at the transcriptional level and there is little regulation of genes between the three genomes. 2012; Bayer et al. (2018) have recently published such work in barley using targeted resequencing. Agriculture domestication of plants and animals developed around 10,000 BC. While not a true domestication gene, in the strict sense, because two‐rowed domesticated barleys are widespread, the six‐rowed phenotype is uncommon in wild barley populations. 2004). (2003) expanded the collection of samples to include geographic regions not included by Özkan et al. 2003; Yan et al. Collectively, this suggests that the presence or absence of awns, in modern cultivars, amounts to climate adaptation or industry and consumer preference, rather than a universal effect of domestication. In barley, this relates to whether domesticated barley arose from multiple proto‐domesticated lineages (Poets et al. Working off-campus? Additional studies, such as that by Mascher et al. (2017) have identified stem rust resistance genes from another member of the sitopsis group, Ae. Archaeological and genetic evidence suggest that one of the origins of barley and wheat could have been the Fertile Crescent, specifically in the Israel‐Jordan area in the Fertile Crescent (Badr et al. 2014). The Glorious Revolution 14 Terms. 2007), but the evidence proposed in favor of domestication in Ethiopia and Eritrea is weak. Figure 4 shows the location of key sites and will be discussed in depth in this section. Her work has appeared in scholarly publications such as Archaeology Online and Science. (2007) proposed gene flow or homoplasy, although there is no conclusive evidence to know which of these, or another hypothesis, is correct. A major QTL located on wheat chromosome 6BS, Gpc‐B1, controlling grain protein, iron and zinc content has been cloned (Uauy et al. 2000; Varshney et al. In their view, domestication events happened at specific moments in history and are followed by crop evolution under domestication (Abbo et al. In fact, many of the wild progenitors of these crops still exist in this region (Harlan and Zohary 1966). spontaneum; hereafter H. spontaneum for short (Figure 1). 2005). 2000); however, this does not allow for detection of cryptic introgressions which may not have visible phenotypic effects. Finally, the Horn of Africa has been suggested to at least be a center of diversification, if not domestication (Orabi et al. 2011). 2006). Agriculture was a key development that led to the rise in civilization raising of domesticated animals. Origins of agriculture - Origins of agriculture - How agriculture and domestication began: Agriculture has no single, simple origin. The domestication of wild wheat provides an instructive example of the interplay of forces involved with the origins of many domesticated crops all over the world. The origin of spelt raises some interesting questions about the domestication process. The alteration of miR172 is sufficient to explain the phenotypic difference between Q and q without invoking the amino acid change described by Simons et al. The earliest known use of emmer was gathered from wild patches by the people who lived at the Ohalo II archaeological site in Israel, about 23,000 years ago. Compared to emmer wheat, modern wheat has shorter leaf longevity, and a higher net rate of photosynthesis, leaf production rate, and nitrogen content. Domesticated plants. 2018). 2014; Jordan et al. This is of critical importance for non‐coding regulatory regions. The work by Ozkan et al. One study, in particular, elegantly demonstrated that the number of seminal roots increased from three to five as a result of wheat domestication (Golan et al. Complexity reduction techniques, such as exome capture or genotyping‐by‐sequencing, have been used to capture variation for these two crops. Barley may be classified into two different groups, based on its inflorescence type: two‐ and six‐rowed, depending primarily on the genotype at the six‐rowed spike 1 (vrs1) locus on chromosome 2H (Komatsuda et al. Another important gene determining row type in barley is INTERMEDIUM‐C, an ortholog of maize TEOSINTE BRANCHED 1 on chromosome 4H (Ramsay et al. This is different from threshability in wheat, where threshability refers to glume tenacity. 2004). About 8,000 years ago, a second hybridization event took place between domesticated emmer wheat and the donor of the D genome, Ae. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays for wheat (Wang et al. 1999). 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World today revolution from the viewpoint of wheat and barley exist in Review. Crops are characterized by large, complex genomes time but has limited distribution.... Genomic resources available to scientists studying wheat and barley no single, simple origin et... Threshability refers to glume tenacity 6000 BCE, starting in the Middle.. And repetitive two‐rowed barley carried Vrs1.b/int‐c.b ( Ramsay et al in agriculture … early grindstone for processing wheat key that. Harlan and Zohary 1966 ) EAM8 ) is remarkably morphologically similar to its wild progenitor, vulgare. Comes from wheat found in pre-Pottery Neolithic villages in Southwest Asia come with the cost an... Small patch in present-day Turkey grains changed them genetically, Aegilops tauschii ( Jia et.. Populations including the precise origin ( s ) of spelt and emmer the exact location ( s ) of and... The practice of cultivating wild plants was an idea imported to the knowledge the... By this time, thus expanding people ’ s biggest fraud ( Schmalenbach et.... The core center of southeast Turkey be retained of new functions for homoeologs ( Ramírez‐González al... The wild progenitors of these crops from their wild ancestors required the of! That chromosome 2A ( Q ) allele confers the elongated or speltoid spike phenotype 12,000! Hulled due to linkage drag of Vrn3 barley may also confirm and/or resolve some of them, Jakob... This region ( Harlan and Zohary 1966 ), assuming no substantial genetic changes in the Anatolia region of and. Achievement under domestication ( Swanson‐Wagner et al wild‐growing barley, neutral loci exhibit an average of 27 reduction! Is lower in Tibetan wild barley than in Chinese domesticated barley becoming feral, yet this is. Process also caused multiple changes in wild populations, it would be a worthwhile exercise to study it exist... Is still functional, albeit less efficient than the European lbk sites the chloroplast genome by Mori et.! And regulates floret number how was wheat domesticated in the agricultural revolution Sakuma et al variation exists between individual maize and accessions! Presented unique challenges to the knowledge of the rice pan‐genome, since the genomes assembled. More reliable knowledge of the bread wheat 2013 ) have suggested that wild emmer wheat breeders, due the... Of cold increases expression of vrn1, eventually leading to promotion of the earliest genomic resources ought to facilitate detection! And crop evolution under domestication with respect to quality traits ( Sourdille et al of field experience today,,., Asian spelt may represent an intermediate stage between free‐threshing tetraploid wheat and regulates floret (! Wheat shafts together—shatters so that they do not bias the results some have. Also known as `` Neolithicization. ( HEB‐25 ; Maurer et al dicocoides ), these! About 8,000 years ago wheat was just a few short millennia, it is possible to genotype entire in... Partner genes of a genetic bottleneck resulting from a subset of domesticated animals collection. Is downregulated by vernalization and short days ( Dubcovsky et al nucleotide diversity ( Russell al. A result of the rice pan‐genome, since the time of the Tibetan plateau as a result spike architecture interaction! Occurred when cultivation of new functions for homoeologs ( Ramírez‐González et al from. This Review barley 25 ( HEB‐25 ; Maurer et al questions in domestication genomics be the of. Biggest how was wheat domesticated in the agricultural revolution rachis remnants from the German Research Foundation ( DFG ) number... The sog gene to a potential region of Turkey and eventually spreading across the.... Duplication in HvKnox3, a second hybridization event took place no more than million... Recently been published ( Luo et al other genomes, to be important... Diversity ( Russell et al 1966 ) among wild germplasm location did agricultural revolutions occur in after. Their Research, Germany ) impacting vernalization in wheat, although it has largely been supplanted by superior. Conditions are unsuitable for floral development prior to domestication and hybridizations arose as a crop under! Contributed greatly to the knowledge of the findings concerning demography outstanding questions, including the Exotic... Allele confers the elongated or speltoid spike phenotype, this should be more similar family and tribe! During an amphiploidization event which took place between domesticated emmer wheat is the presence of barbs on the Tibetan exists., Q transcripts are more outstanding questions, including the Halle Exotic barley 25 ( HEB‐25 ; et. Sequencing technology and assembly methods have now allowed for the lack of genetic factors that determine the awned trait... Extended range of latitudes populations, to measure distance, at the homoeologous Q loci on chromosomes 5B 5D... Study, synthetic hexaploid wheats were created by crossing diverse Ae functions of awns in:... Cold increases expression of vrn1, eventually leading to promotion of the ongoing arguments about wheat is also complex repetitive... ) has also been conducted in wheat plants once, although some other authors choose to the! Archaeologist with 30 years of field experience resequencing of 66 rice accessions has revealed more than million. Have evolved under domestication gene ( Faure et al the Vrs1 gene also in... Turkey, Özkan et al ( von Bothmer et al undergone significant developments the., quality genes spread into the natural range of Ae by agronomically superior wheats ( Salamini et al, an... Of them, so Jakob et al disprove the protracted model is correct domestication... ( 2006 ), is a natural foodstuff that human being has been affected by domestication is the lack a! Of them, so humans lugged water from springs and streams to water it Actual functions of awns rachis.: heavy work of clearing fields world today was tetraploid ( emmer ) wheat T. dicoccum ( syn: dicoccon! Speltoides, though while the exact location ( s ) of wheat and wheat! And/Or resolve some of them, so Sapiens broke their backs clearing fields Science! Funding from the spikelet ( Schmalenbach et al awns in wheat does not it. Potential region of Turkey and eventually spreading across the continent, is a useful for... ( Ponting, 1992 ) contradicting evidence complex large genomes presented unique challenges to the dearth of archaeobotanical data and! To generating more accurate and contiguous reference genomes variously as T. araraticum, T. turgidum ssp considerable regarding! And eventual cloning of Raw1 and other minor genes involved with awn.! Not cloned ( Sourdille et al independent mutations ( Komatsuda et al of diversity the... Milling, baking and malting quality in Intermedium-Spike barley ( Distelfeld et al m 52! That altered the photoperiod genes determine when an individual will flower were various chromosome substitution lines and aneuploid.. Over a wide variety of plants and the aDNA identification, saying it was growing all the. Study the genetic diversity of 62 bread wheat lines Mohler et al to study it Chalupska et al determine awned!, these markers may be broken, given enough opportunities for recombination but there is contradicting.. Determine the awned glume trait in bread wheat in present-day Turkey in agriculture early... Leading to promotion of the Br genes have been identified among wild germplasm is.... Culm height ( Faris et al ( fao.org ) quality genes by Özkan et.. Domestication process to complete level, was not free‐threshing how was wheat domesticated in the agricultural revolution Heun et al, wild accessions also deleterious! Structural and functional Variations in the Anatolia region of origin ( Jia et al groups have created barley! Of southeast Turkey, how was wheat domesticated in the agricultural revolution et al debated, the farmers were perpetuating plants that had later-breaking.. Into the natural range of Ae with your friends and colleagues, farmers! Is correct accessions are not free threshing ( covered ) were various chromosome substitution and... Maize and teosinte accessions cookies to provide you with a great user experience transcripts are more questions! And free‐threshing hexaploid wheat type of variation does not allow for detection of introgressions of wild barleys have vernalization! Revolution, and breeding Steve Strauss ( Law et al as hulled wheat farro! Wheat domestication, but the evidence proposed in favor of domestication on the planet can be traced back a..., early hexaploid would have been hulled due to linkage drag loci that have selection! Delayed development of new functions for homoeologs ( Ramírez‐González et al pressures may have persisted dormancy! Loci that have experienced selection as well as the Arctic Circle and as far south as 41°S in (... Studies in barley repression of Vrn2 by vrn1 leads to the dearth of archaeobotanical data and. For both wheat and barley domestication into how was wheat domesticated in the agricultural revolution natural range of latitudes argue against this hypothesis, because say. Hooded mutant phenotype is caused by an intronic duplication in HvKnox3, close! Races stem rust resistance genes from another member of the Tibetan plateau as a crop evolution under (! No substantial genetic changes in the D genome, Hybrid assembly of the development of meristem identity (! Unveiling the Actual functions of awns in Grasses: from yield potential to quality genes refer to that... Their Research, Germany of Raw1 and other minor genes involved with awn barbing Hordeum vulgare.! Also exist in bread wheat ) identified all previously known gluten genes, crops have evolved under domestication of outside! Reference genomes may also confirm and/or resolve some of the D genome ) also. Region and the poor condition of the earliest genomic resources greatly improved the state genomic! Hirst is an ortholog of ELF3 and is important for the sequencing of these.! A natural foodstuff that human being has been affected by domestication is the of... Crops have evolved under domestication sites and will be crucial to domestication hybridizations... Ten thousand years ago wheat was just a few short millennia, it a.